Achilles lengthening procedures

Foot Ankle Clin. 2009 Dec;14(4):627-37. doi: 10.1016/j.fcl.2009.08.002.


Contracture of the gastrocnemius-soleus complex with equinus deformity is a common hindfoot condition. In children, it is frequently associated with neuromuscular conditions such as cerebral palsy. In the adult population, it is linked to numerous pathologies such as adult-acquired flatfoot, diabetic neuropathic ulcers, and plantar fasciitis. With the medial column reduced, failure to achieve 10 degrees of passive ankle dorsiflexion with the knee flexed and extended suggests a contracture. This article reviews the anatomical and evolutionary basis for human foot structure, implications of tight gastrocnemius, and specific disease states. Operative releases for lengthening, including proximal gastrocnemius recession, tendo-Achilles lengthening, and endoscopic recession, are detailed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Achilles Tendon / surgery*
  • Adult
  • Contracture / epidemiology
  • Contracture / physiopathology
  • Contracture / surgery*
  • Diabetic Foot / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Foot / surgery
  • Endoscopy
  • Fasciitis, Plantar / epidemiology
  • Flatfoot / physiopathology
  • Gait / physiology
  • Humans
  • Muscle Contraction / physiology
  • Orthopedic Procedures