Affinity for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate determines muscarinic agonist sensitivity of Kv7 K+ channels

J Gen Physiol. 2009 Nov;134(5):437-48. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200910313.


Kv7 K(+)-channel subunits differ in their apparent affinity for PIP(2) and are differentially expressed in nerve, muscle, and epithelia in accord with their physiological roles in those tissues. To investigate how PIP(2) affinity affects the response to physiological stimuli such as receptor stimulation, we exposed homomeric and heteromeric Kv7.2, 7.3, and 7.4 channels to a range of concentrations of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine-M (oxo-M) in a heterologous expression system. Activation of M(1) receptors by oxo-M leads to PIP(2) depletion through G(q) and phospholipase C (PLC). Chinese hamster ovary cells were transiently transfected with Kv7 subunits and M(1) receptors and studied under perforated-patch voltage clamp. For Kv7.2/7.3 heteromers, the EC(50) for current suppression was 0.44 +/- 0.08 microM, and the maximal inhibition (Inhib(max)) was 74 +/- 3% (n = 5-7). When tonic PIP(2) abundance was increased by overexpression of PIP 5-kinase, the EC(50) was shifted threefold to the right (1.2 +/- 0.1 microM), but without a significant change in Inhib(max) (73 +/- 4%, n = 5). To investigate the muscarinic sensitivity of Kv7.3 homomers, we used the A315T pore mutant (Kv7.3(T)) that increases whole-cell currents by 30-fold without any change in apparent PIP(2) affinity. Kv7.3(T) currents had a slightly right-shifted EC(50) as compared with Kv7.2/7.3 heteromers (1.0 +/- 0.8 microM) and a strongly reduced Inhib(max) (39 +/- 3%). In contrast, the dose-response curve of homomeric Kv7.4 channels was shifted considerably to the left (66 +/- 8 nM), and Inhib(max) was slightly increased (81 +/- 6%, n = 3-4). We then studied several Kv7.2 mutants with altered apparent affinities for PIP(2) by coexpressing them with Kv7.3(T) subunits to boost current amplitudes. For the lower affinity (Kv7.2 (R463Q)/Kv7.3(T)) or higher affinity (Kv7.2 (R463E)/Kv7.3(T)) channels, the EC(50) and Inhib(max) were similar to Kv7.4 or Kv7.3(T) homomers (0.12 +/- 0.08 microM and 79 +/- 6% [n = 3-4] and 0.58 +/- 0.07 microM and 27 +/- 3% [n = 3-4], respectively). The very low-affinity Kv7.2 (R452E, R459E, and R461E) triple mutant was also coexpressed with Kv7.3(T). The resulting heteromer displayed a very low EC(50) for inhibition (32 +/- 8 nM) and a slightly increased Inhib(max) (83 +/- 3%, n = 3-4). We then constructed a cellular model that incorporates PLC activation by oxo-M, PIP(2) hydrolysis, PIP(2) binding to Kv7-channel subunits, and K(+) current through Kv7 tetramers. We were able to fully reproduce our data and extract a consistent set of PIP(2) affinities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CHO Cells
  • Cricetinae
  • Cricetulus
  • Humans
  • KCNQ Potassium Channels / metabolism
  • KCNQ2 Potassium Channel / metabolism*
  • KCNQ3 Potassium Channel / metabolism
  • Muscarinic Agonists / metabolism
  • Muscarinic Agonists / pharmacology*
  • Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Muscarinic / metabolism*


  • KCNQ Potassium Channels
  • KCNQ2 Potassium Channel
  • KCNQ3 Potassium Channel
  • KCNQ4 protein, human
  • Muscarinic Agonists
  • Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate
  • Receptors, Muscarinic