Engineering lymphocyte subsets: tools, trials and tribulations

Nat Rev Immunol. 2009 Oct;9(10):704-16. doi: 10.1038/nri2635.


Cell-based therapies with various lymphocyte subsets hold promise for the treatment of several diseases, including cancer and disease resulting from inflammation and infection. The ability to genetically engineer lymphocyte subsets has the potential to improve the natural immune response and correct impaired immunity. In this Review we focus on the lymphocyte subsets that have been modified genetically or by other means for therapeutic benefit, on the technologies used to engineer lymphocytes and on the latest progress and hurdles in translating these technologies to the clinic.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adoptive Transfer*
  • Animals
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Epigenesis, Genetic / genetics
  • Epigenesis, Genetic / immunology
  • Genetic Engineering*
  • Genetic Vectors / adverse effects
  • Genetic Vectors / immunology
  • Humans
  • Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology*
  • Lymphocyte Subsets / transplantation*
  • Transduction, Genetic
  • Transgenes / genetics
  • Transgenes / immunology

Grant support