Ducks as sentinels for avian influenza in wild birds

Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Oct;15(10):1633-6. doi: 10.3201/eid1510.090439.


To determine the effectiveness of ducks as sentinels for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, we placed mallards in contact with wild birds at resting sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Infections of sentinel birds with different AIV subtypes confirmed the value of such surveillance for AIV monitoring.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Wild
  • Austria / epidemiology
  • Ducks*
  • Feces / virology
  • Germany / epidemiology
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype
  • Influenza in Birds / epidemiology*
  • Sentinel Surveillance / veterinary*
  • Switzerland / epidemiology