Objective: Craniofacial deformities (CFDs) frequently accompany midfacial hypoplasia. The authors evaluated characteristics of maxillary sinuses that had CFDs with variable degrees of midfacial hypoplasia.
Study design: Cross-sectional survey with chart review.
Setting: Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Subjects and methods: We investigated 40 patients with CFDs having midfacial hypoplasia. Study group 1 (SG 1) consisted of eight patients with Crouzon syndrome (16 maxillary sinuses). Study group 2 (SG 2) consisted of 10 patients with midfacial hypoplasia after palatoplasty (20 maxillary sinuses). Study group 3 (SG 3) consisted of 22 patients with Pruzansky grade I hemifacial microsomia (22 maxillary sinuses on the affected sides). Data on volume and three-dimensional distances (height, width, and depth) from computed tomography were collected and compared with each corresponding control group. Correlation coefficient between volume and the three distances was also calculated.
Results: The volume, height, width, and depth of the maxillary sinus were significantly decreased in SG 1 (P < 0.01). In SG 2, only the depth was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In SG 3, there were no significant differences in any parameters. A multiple-regression analysis between the volume and the three distances showed a statistically significant relationship for width in SG 1, width and height in SG 2, and all distances in SG 3.
Conclusion: There were differences in the structure of the maxillary sinuses among patients with different CFDs.