Reference values for facilitating the interpretation of the ESPRINT-15 questionnaire (Spanish version)

J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2009;19(5):396-403.


Objective: ESPRINT-15 is a specific, short-form instrument to measure health-related quality of life in adults suffering from allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to obtain reference values in order to improve its interpretability.

Methods: ESPRINT-15 was administered to a representative sample of Spanish adults with allergic rhinitis. Means and percentiles were obtained, taking into account the kind of rhinitis (persistent/intermittent) and symptom severity (very mild/mild/moderate/severe).

Results: A total of 2756 patients participated in the study. Mean (SD) scores were significantly lower (better) for men than for women (2.2 [1.4] vs 2.4 [1.4], P<.001, effect size [ES] is congruent to 0.15). Patients with intermittent rhinitis showed better scores than patients with persistent rhinitis (2.1 [1.4] vs. 2.5 [1.4], P<.001, ES is congruent to 0.21). Mean (SD) scores were higher (worse) when severity of symptoms increased, ranging from 0.9 (0.9) (very mild) to 3.7 (1.0) (severe) (ES is congruent to 1.0 between each consecutive group of symptom severity).

Conclusions: The magnitude of the differences found among groups of patients reinforces the usefulness of providing reference values stratified by gender, type of allergic rhinitis, and symptom severity. The percentiles obtained can be used in clinical practice to evaluate individual scores, and assign the patient to the corresponding reference group.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Quality of Life
  • Reference Values
  • Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial / immunology*
  • Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial / psychology
  • Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal / immunology*
  • Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal / psychology
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Spain
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*