The global burden of disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae remains high. The licensed 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM, Prevenar/Prevnar) has successfully reduced invasive disease in the USA, but serotype coverage is incomplete and some evidence suggests that serotype replacement has occurred. Recently, a new 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) protein D (PD) conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix) has been licensed in more than 40 countries, including Europe, for the prevention of invasive disease and acute otitis media (AOM) due to pneumococcus in infants and children. PHiD-CV is immunogenic in infants when administered as a three-dose primary vaccination in a range of schedules and has a safety profile comparable to that of 7vCRM. Additional serotypes in PHiD-CV (1, 5 and 7F) increase overall serotype coverage and improve coverage in specific age groups and against specific disease syndromes. The use of the PD carrier, which provided protection against AOM caused by NTHi in a large efficacy trial testing a prototype of the final vaccine formulation, suggests that PHiD-CV will also provide some protection against AOM due to NTHi.