It has been recently demonstrated that progranulin is overexpressed in ovarian cancer and that this protein is involved in the stimulation of cell proliferation, malignancy, and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. The goal of the present study was to establish the differences in progranulin expression among normal, benign, and malignant ovarian tissues and to identify the signal transduction pathways activated by progranulin in an ovarian cancer cell line. Compared with benign tumors and normal ovarian tissue, progranulin mRNA and protein were overexpressed in malignant tumors. Survival analysis by the Kaplan-Meier method showed a correlation between high mRNA expression levels with poor survival outcome. Progranulin activated the MAPK-signaling pathway in NIH-OVCAR-3 cells. Progranulin expression may be potentially involved in the pathogenesis and malignant progression of ovarian cancer, and thus may represent a therapeutic target for this particular malignancy.