Do gender differences exist in pacemaker implantation?--results of an obligatory external quality control program

Europace. 2010 Feb;12(2):210-5. doi: 10.1093/europace/eup312. Epub 2009 Oct 28.


Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of patient gender onto primary pacemaker implantation, evaluating the database of the Institute of Quality Assurance Hessen in the federal state of Hessen, Germany.

Methods and results: The database of the obligatory external quality control program for the years 2003-2006 was evaluated retrospectively. In 72 centres, 17 826 patients undergoing stationary primary pacemaker implantation have been registered. Male patients had more AV blocks when compared with women and less sick sinus syndrome and atrial fibrillation with bradycardia. In patients being 80 years and older, men received significantly more dual-chamber devices than women for the indications: AV block and sick sinus syndrome. In women, atrial pacing thresholds were significantly higher and P-wave amplitudes were significantly lower. Women had, independent from age or pacing system implanted, significantly more acute complications than men, with significant differences for pneumothorax and pocket haematoma.

Conclusion: This large-scale real-life patient cohort of primary stationary pacemaker implantation showed that gender has an impact onto pacemaker implantation, with less favourable outcomes for women.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Atrioventricular Block / therapy*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Databases as Topic
  • Female
  • Germany
  • Guideline Adherence
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pacemaker, Artificial / classification
  • Pacemaker, Artificial / statistics & numerical data*
  • Quality Control*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Characteristics*
  • Sick Sinus Syndrome / therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult