Allopathic, complementary, and alternative medical treatment utilization for pain among methadone-maintained patients

Am J Addict. 2009 Sep-Oct;18(5):379-85. doi: 10.3109/10550490903077671.


We surveyed 150 methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) patients about pain, pain treatment utilization, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in pursuing pain treatment at the MMTP. Respondents with chronic severe pain (CSP) (ie, pain lasting at least six months with moderate to severe pain intensity or significant pain interference) and "some pain" (ie, pain reported in the previous week but not CSP) endorsed similar rates of past-week and lifetime allopathic or standard medical (with the exception of lifetime medical use of non-opiate medication) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization for pain reduction. Prior pain treatments were perceived to be less effective by CSP than SP patients but both groups had equivalent high rates of interest in pain treatment associated with the MMTP. These findings may have implications for resource and program planning in MMTPs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / therapeutic use*
  • Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use*
  • Chronic Disease / drug therapy
  • Complementary Therapies / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Methadone / therapeutic use*
  • Middle Aged
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / complications
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / rehabilitation
  • Pain / complications
  • Pain / drug therapy*
  • Self Medication / statistics & numerical data
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Substance Abuse Treatment Centers


  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Methadone