The variety of ecstasy/MDMA users: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on alcohol and related conditions

Am J Addict. 2009 Nov-Dec;18(6):452-61. doi: 10.3109/10550490903206049.

Abstract

This study investigates the potential heterogeneity of ecstasy or MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) users. Data came from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Latent class analysis (LCA) and multinomial logistic regression procedures were used to identify subtypes of ecstasy users. Approximately 1.6% (n = 562) of adult participants (N = 43,093) reported lifetime ecstasy use. LCA identified three subtypes of ecstasy users. Class 1 exhibited pervasive use of most drug classes (ecstasy-polydrug users, 37%). Class 2 reported a high rate of use of marijuana and cocaine and a moderate use of amphetamines (ecstasy-marijuana-stimulant users, 29%). Class 3 was characterized by a high rate of use of marijuana and a low use of primarily prescription-type drugs (ecstasy-marijuana users, 34%). Subtypes were distinguished by family income, history of substance abuse treatment, and familial substance abuse. Class 1 exhibited the highest prevalence of disorders related to the use of marijuana (77%), tobacco (66%), amphetamines (36%), opioids (35%), sedatives (31%), and tranquilizers (30%). The recent resurgence in ecstasy use among adults underscores the need to monitor trends in its use.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Alcoholism / epidemiology*
  • Alcoholism / rehabilitation
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Hallucinogens*
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Illicit Drugs*
  • Male
  • Marijuana Abuse / epidemiology
  • Marijuana Abuse / rehabilitation
  • Middle Aged
  • N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine*
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / rehabilitation
  • United States
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Hallucinogens
  • Illicit Drugs
  • N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine