Objective: To analyse potential association of various clinical characteristics of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) among men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to BPH of varying severity.
Patients and methods: We reviewed the data of 2741 consecutive patients who presented to our clinic with LUTS secondary to BPH. For our analysis, CKD was defined by an elevated serum creatinine level or decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to address associations of CKD with various clinical characteristics.
Results: Of the 2741 patients, 161 (5.9%) were initially classified as having CKD (serum creatinine > or =133 micromol/L). In multivariate analysis, peak flow rate (P = 0.001) and a history of hypertension and/or diabetes (both P < 0.001) were significantly associated with CKD, whereas age, body mass index, prostate-specific antigen level, prostate volume, postvoid residual, or International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were not. When individual symptoms from the IPSS were analysed, only weak stream (P = 0.041) and hesitancy (P = 0.048), both obstruction-related, were significantly associated with CKD status in age and comorbidity-adjusted analyses. The results of secondary analysis with CKD defined as an eGFR of <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were similar.
Conclusion: Our results show that decreased peak flow rate and a history of hypertension and/or diabetes are significantly associated with CKD in men seeking management for LUTS from BPH of varying severity.