Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been utilized in surgery for 2 decades; there has been a recent interest in the use of PRP for the treatment of sports-related injuries. PRP contains growth factors and bioactive proteins that influence the healing of tendon, ligament, muscle, and bone. This article examines the basic science of PRP, and it describes the current clinical applications in sports medicine. This study reviews and evaluates the human studies that have been published in the orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine literature. The use of PRP in amateur and professional sports is reviewed, and the regulation of PRP by antidoping agencies is discussed.