Arterial ketone body ratio (AKBR) was measured sequentially in 84 liver transplantations (OLTx). These transplantation procedures were classified into 3 groups with respect to graft survival and patient condition at the end of the first month (Group A, the grafts survived longer than 1 month with satisfactory patient condition; Group B, the grafts survived longer than 1 month but the patients were ICU-bound; Group C, the grafts were lost and the patients died or underwent re-OLTx). In Group A, the AKBR was elevated to above 1.0 by the second postoperative day. In Group B, the AKBR was elevated to above 0.7 but stayed below 1.0 during this period. In Group C, the AKBR remained below 0.7 longer than 2 days after operation. Although conventional liver function tests showed significant increases in Groups B and C as compared with Group A, they were less specific in predicting ultimate graft survival.