Relative importance of activation sequence compared to atrioventricular synchrony in left ventricular function

Am J Cardiol. 1991 Jan 15;67(2):148-56. doi: 10.1016/0002-9149(91)90437-p.


This study evaluated the relative hemodynamic importance of a normal left ventricular (LV) activation sequence compared to atrioventricular (AV) synchrony with respect to systolic and diastolic function. Twelve patients with intact AV conduction and AV sequential pacemakers underwent radionuclide studies at rest and Doppler echocardiographic studies at rest and during submaximal exercise, comparing atrial demand pacing (AAI) to sequential AV sensing pacing (DDD) and ventricular demand pacing (VVI). Studies at rest were performed at a constant heart rate between pacing modes, and the exercise study was performed at a constant heart rate and work load. Cardiac output was higher during AAI than during both DDD and VVI (6.2 +/- 1 vs 5.6 +/- 1 and 5.3 +/- 1 liters/min, p less than 0.05). LV ejection fraction was likewise higher during AAI (55 +/- 12 vs 49 +/- 11 vs 51 +/- 13, p less than 0.05). VVI with or without AV synchrony was associated with a paradoxical septal motion pattern, resulting in a 25% impairment of regional septal ejection fraction. In addition, LV contraction duration was more homogenous during AAI. Peak filling rate during AAI and VVI was higher than during DDD (2.86 +/- 1 and 2.95 +/- 1 vs 2.25 +/- 1 end-diastolic volume/s; p less than 0.05). During VVI, the time to peak filling was significantly shorter than during both AAI and DDD (165 +/- 34 vs 239 +/- 99 and 224 +/- 99 ms; p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Arrhythmia, Sinus / therapy
  • Atrioventricular Node / physiology*
  • Cardiac Output / physiology
  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial / methods*
  • Echocardiography, Doppler
  • Exercise Test
  • Female
  • Gated Blood-Pool Imaging
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Contraction / physiology
  • Pacemaker, Artificial*
  • Stroke Volume / physiology
  • Ventricular Function, Left / physiology*