Signal transduction pathways control cellular responses to extrinsic and intrinsic signals. The yeast HOG (High Osmolarity Glycerol) response pathway mediates cellular adaptation to hyperosmotic stress. Pathway architecture as well as the flow of signal have been studied to a very high degree of detail. Recently, the yeast HOG pathway has become a popular model to analyse systems level properties of signal transduction. Those studies addressed, using experimentation and modelling, the role of basal signalling, robustness against perturbation, as well as adaptation and feedback control. These recent findings provide exciting insight into the higher control levels of signalling through this MAPK system of potential general importance.