In this study, we evaluated alternative technical markers for the motion analysis of the pelvic segment. Thirteen subjects walked eight times while tri-dimensional kinematics were recorded for one stride of each trial. Five marker sets were evaluated, and we compared the tilt, obliquity, and rotation angles of the pelvis segment: (1) standard: markers at the anterior and posterior superior iliac spines (ASIS and PSIS); (2) markers at the PSIS and at the hip joint centers, HJCs (estimated by a functional method and described with clusters of markers at the thighs); (3) markers at the PSIS and HJCs (estimated by a predictive method and described with clusters of markers at the thighs); (4) markers at the PSIS and HJCs (estimated by a predictive method and described with skin-mounted markers at the thighs based on the Helen-Hayes marker set); (5) markers at the PSIS and at the iliac spines. Concerning the pelvic angles, evaluation of the alternative technical marker sets evinced that all marker sets demonstrated similar precision across trials (about 1 degrees ) but different accuracies (ranging from 1 degrees to 3 degrees ) in comparison to the standard marker set. We suggest that all the investigated marker sets are reliable alternatives to the standard pelvic marker set.
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