This column describes findings and best-practice recommendations from CARE (Communicating and Relating Effectively), a prospective randomized study in which 5,169 mothers were screened for postpartum depression. The prevalence rate was 13%. Results support use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screening Scale and a diagnostic assessment for those who screen positive. Of the 674 mothers with positive screens, 26% were not asked about their emotional state by clinicians. Screening must be linked to treatment options via referral and follow-up. Best-practice strategies for implementing screening include educating clinicians and postpartum women.