Acute coronary syndromes: Diagnosis and management, part II

Mayo Clin Proc. 2009 Nov;84(11):1021-36. doi: 10.1016/S0025-6196(11)60674-5.

Abstract

At the most severe end of the spectrum of acute coronary syndromes is ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which usually occurs when a fibrin-rich thrombus completely occludes an epicardial coronary artery. The diagnosis of STEMI is based on clinical characteristics and persistent ST-segment elevation as demonstrated by 12-lead electrocardiography. Patients with STEMI should undergo rapid assessment for reperfusion therapy, and a reperfusion strategy should be implemented promptly after the patient's contact with the health care system. Two methods are currently available for establishing timely coronary reperfusion: primary percutaneous coronary intervention and fibrinolytic therapy. Percutaneous coronary intervention is the preferred method but is not always available. Antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants are critical adjuncts to reperfusion. This article summarizes the current evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of STEMI. This summary is followed by a brief discussion of the role of noninvasive stress testing in the assessment of patients with acute coronary syndrome and their selection for coronary revascularization.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Academic Medical Centers
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / mortality
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / therapy*
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / adverse effects
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / methods
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Artery Bypass / adverse effects
  • Coronary Artery Bypass / methods
  • Electrocardiography
  • Female
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Minnesota
  • Myocardial Revascularization / adverse effects
  • Myocardial Revascularization / methods*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Prognosis
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Risk Assessment
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Factors
  • Survival Analysis
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vascular Patency

Substances

  • Fibrinolytic Agents