Glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: new advances

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2010 Feb;17(1):57-62. doi: 10.1097/MED.0b013e3283339051.


Purpose of review: This article highlights recent advances in our understanding of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) physiology and their various sites of action beyond the incretin effect.

Recent findings: Both GLP-1 and GIP stimulate insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner and are thus classified as incretins. Beyond glucose-dependent insulin secretion, the peptides have common actions on islet beta cells, leading beta-cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However, the action of GLP-1 and GIP is not limited to the islet cells; they have regulatory functions in many organs. Recent evidence has suggested that GLP-1 has important beneficial effects in the cardiovascular system and central nervous system. GIP may play a role in promoting energy storage in humans, enhances bone formation via stimulation of osteoblast proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis and may play a role in central nervous system function.

Summary: These new findings suggest further application of these hormones for the treatment of conditions such as cardiovascular disease and obesity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adipocytes / physiology
  • Animals
  • Bone and Bones / physiology
  • Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena
  • Central Nervous System / physiology
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / physiology*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / physiology
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Peripheral Nervous System / physiology
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / physiology


  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor