In recent years mitochondria, as the most abundant organelles in animal and human cells, have come to the forefront of biomedical research as they are now recognized not only as the major producers of ATP needed to drive cellular functions critical for life, but they are also the instruments of cell death. Not surprisingly, therefore, mitochondria are now known to be involved in many different diseases ranging from those that affect millions worldwide to those that affect only a few, i.e., rare diseases. These diseases include in addition to cardio-myopathies and cancer also diseases that affect many other organs/tissues including the brain/nervous system, the latter diseases now commonly referred to as "neurodegenerative diseases". Specifically, the subject of this mini-review series focuses on the role of mitochondria in Alzheimer's disease, a major age related neurodegenerative disease that results in loss or decline of memory and other cognitive abilities. This devastating disease affects millions of Americans, and globally multi-millions with very grim predictions for the future. Although the molecular and gene-related details that underlie Alzheimer's disease remain to be clearly elucidated, mitochondria appear to be very intimately involved. The purpose of this mini-review series is to summarize how various investigators working on this subject envision the role(s) of mitochondria in Alzheimer's disease. The development of future therapies for this disease is likely to rely heavily on the new knowledge gained.