The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) functions as a center to integrate various neuronal activities for regulating feeding behavior. Nesfatin-1, a recently discovered anorectic molecule, is localized in the PVN. However, the anorectic neural pathway of nesfatin-1 remains unknown. Here we show that central injection of nesfatin-1 activates the PVN and brain stem nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In the PVN, nesfatin-1 targets both magnocellular and parvocellular oxytocin neurons and nesfatin-1 neurons themselves and stimulates oxytocin release. Immunoelectron micrographs reveal nesfatin-1 specifically in the secretory vesicles of PVN neurons, and immunoneutralization against endogenous nesfatin-1 suppresses oxytocin release in the PVN, suggesting paracrine/autocrine actions of nesfatin-1. Nesfatin-1-induced anorexia is abolished by an oxytocin receptor antagonist. Moreover, oxytocin terminals are closely associated with and oxytocin activates pro-opiomelanocortin neurons in the NTS. Oxytocin induces melanocortin-dependent anorexia in leptin-resistant Zucker-fatty rats. The present results reveal the nesfatin-1-operative oxytocinergic signaling in the PVN that triggers leptin-independent melanocortin-mediated anorexia.