DksA and ppGpp directly regulate transcription of the Escherichia coli flagellar cascade

Mol Microbiol. 2009 Dec;74(6):1368-79. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06939.x. Epub 2009 Nov 2.


The components of the Escherichia coli flagella apparatus are synthesized in a three-level transcriptional cascade activated by the master regulator FlhDC. The cascade co-ordinates the synthesis rates of a large number of gene products with each other and with nutritional conditions. Recent genome-wide studies have reported that flagellar transcription is altered in cells lacking the transcription regulators DksA or ppGpp, but some or all reported effects could be indirect, and some are contradictory. We report here that the activities of promoters at all three levels of the cascade are much higher in strains lacking dksA, resulting in overproduction of flagellin and hyperflagellated cells. In vitro, DksA/ppGpp inhibits the flhDC promoter and the sigma(70)-dependent fliA promoter transcribing the gene for sigma(28). However, DksA and ppGpp do not affect the sigma(28)-dependent fliA promoter or the sigma(28)-dependent fliC promoter in vitro, suggesting that the dramatic effects on expression of those genes in vivo are mediated indirectly through direct effects of DksA/ppGpp on FlhDC and sigma(28) expression. We conclude that DksA/ppGpp inhibits expression of the flagellar cascade during stationary phase and following starvation, thereby co-ordinating flagella and ribosome assembly and preventing expenditure of scarce energy resources on synthesis of two of the cell's largest macromolecular complexes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Escherichia coli / physiology*
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / genetics
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / physiology*
  • Flagellin / biosynthesis*
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial*
  • Guanosine Tetraphosphate / metabolism*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Transcription, Genetic*


  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • dksA protein, E coli
  • Flagellin
  • Guanosine Tetraphosphate