Cooperation between non-kin in animal societies

Nature. 2009 Nov 5;462(7269):51-7. doi: 10.1038/nature08366.


Explanations of cooperation between non-kin in animal societies often suggest that individuals exchange resources or services and that cooperation is maintained by reciprocity. But do cooperative interactions between unrelated individuals in non-human animals really resemble exchanges or are they a consequence of simpler mechanisms? Firm evidence of reciprocity in animal societies is rare and many examples of cooperation between non-kin probably represent cases of intra-specific mutualism or manipulation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Altruism
  • Animals
  • Behavior Control
  • Cooperative Behavior*
  • Genetic Fitness
  • Models, Biological*
  • Predatory Behavior