Introduction: Resection of pulmonary metastases has previously been reported to improve outcome in high-grade osteosarcoma (OS) patients. Factors influencing survival in OS patients with pulmonary metastases are important for clinical decision making.
Methods: All 88 OS patients with pulmonary metastases either at diagnosis or during follow-up treated at the Leiden University Medical Center between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 2008 under the age of 40 were included in this study, including 79 cases of conventional, 8 cases of telangiectatic and 1 case of small cell OS.
Results: In total, 56 of 88 patients with pulmonary metastases were treated by metastasectomy. Resectability of pulmonary metastases was the main prognostic factor. In patients with primary non-metastatic OS, a longer relapse free interval to pulmonary metastases was significantly associated with better survival (P = 0.02). Independent risk factors determining worse survival after metastasectomy in multivariate analysis were male sex (P = 0.05), higher number of pulmonary nodules (P = 0.03), and non-necrotic metastases (P = 0.04). Whether surgery for recurrent pulmonary metastases was performed did not influence survival. Histological subtype of the primary tumor, histological response in the primary tumor after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, occurrence of local relapse, local resection or amputation of the primary tumor and age at diagnosis did not influence outcome.
Conclusion: This cohort of patients with detailed follow-up data enabled us to identify important risk factors determining survival in OS patients with pulmonary metastases. We demonstrate that after repeated metastasectomies, a subset of patients can be cured.
(c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.