Levels of 27 transcripts were investigated as potential novel markers for prostate cancer, including genes encoding plasma membrane proteins (ADAM2, ELOVL5, MARCKSL1, RAMP1, TMEM30A, and TMEM66); secreted proteins (SPON2, TMEM30A, TMEM66, and truncated TMEFF2 (called POP4)); intracellular proteins (CAMK2N1, DHCR24, GLO1, NGFRAP1, PGK1, PSMA7, SBDS, and YWHAQ); and noncoding transcripts (POP1 (100 kb) from mRNA AK000023), POP2 (4 kb from mRNA AL832227), POP3 (50 kb from EST CFI40309), POP5 (intron of NCAM2, accession DO668384), POP6 (intron of FHIT), POP7 (intron of TNFAIP8), POP8 (intron of EFNA5), POP9 (intron of DSTN), POP10 (intron of ADAM2, accession DO668396), POP11 (87kb from EST BG194644), and POP12 (intron of EST BQ226050)). Expression of POP3 was prostate specific, whereas ADAM2, POP1, POP4, POP10, ELOVL5, RAMP1, and SPON2 had limited tissue expression. ELOVL5, MARCKSL1, NGFRAP1, PGK1, POP2, POP5, POP8, PSMA7, RAMP1, and SPON2 were significantly differentially expressed between laser microdissected malignant versus benign clinical samples of prostate tissue. PGK1, POP2, and POP12 correlated to clinical parameters. Levels of CAMK2N1, GLO1, SDBS, and TMEM30A transcripts tended to be increased in primary prostate cancer from patients who later had biochemical failure. Expression of GLO1, DHCR24, NGFRAP1, KLK3, and RAMP1 were significantly decreased in metastatic castration-recurrent disease compared with androgen-dependent primary prostate cancer. These novel potential biomarkers may therefore be useful in the diagnosis/prognosis of prostate cancer.