Blood vessel growth in adult organisms involves the following two fundamental processes: angiogenesis, the proliferation and extension of capillary networks; and arteriogenesis, the growth of functional arteries. We provide a protocol for the evaluation of postnatal arteriogenesis and angiogenesis in a mouse model of hind-limb ischemia. Surgical ligation of the femoral artery at a specific site triggers arteriogenesis of small, pre-existing collateral arteries into functional conduit vessels proximally and ischemic angiogenesis distally. The vascular response to hind-limb ischemia can be readily evaluated by laser Doppler-based perfusion measurements, histological quantification of arteriogenesis and angiogenesis or whole-mount visualization of arteries in limb muscles. Depending on the experimental design, the protocol takes between 4 and 29 d to complete; however, the net working time is about 2 d per mouse. The concurrent and specific analysis of postnatal angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in the same animal is a unique feature of the protocol.