The composition of bioactives including polysaccharide yield and resistant starch (RS) content of 4 raw and cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars was evaluated. Polysaccharide was fermented in vitro by incubation with human gut flora under anaerobic conditions and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production was compared at 6, 12, and 24 h by gas chromatography. Polysaccharide and soluble fiber contents increased upon cooking with stachyose as the major oligosaccharide. Cooked bean of cultivar Bayo Madero had the highest yield of polysaccharides (55%) and resistant starch (37%), followed by those of Negro 8025 (48% and 32%, respectively). Acetate was the most abundant SCFAs formed in all bean varieties. The concentration of SCFAs was cultivar-dependent; Bayo Madero and Negro 8025 displayed the highest concentration of butyrate (15 mmol/L), while Azufrado Higuera had the lowest and highest concentrations of acetate (39 mmol/L) and propionate (14 mmol/L), respectively. The results suggest that the common bean is an excellent source of polysaccharides that can be fermented in the colon and produce SCFAs, compounds previously reported to exert health benefits.