5q- syndrome is a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome characterized by severe anemia and variable neutropenia but normal or high platelet counts with dysplastic megakaryocytes. We examined expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) encoded on chromosome 5q as a possible cause of haploinsufficiency. We show that deletion of chromosome 5q correlates with loss of two miRNAs that are abundant in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), miR-145 and miR-146a, and we identify Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6) as respective targets of these miRNAs. TIRAP is known to lie upstream of TRAF6 in innate immune signaling. Knockdown of miR-145 and miR-146a together or enforced expression of TRAF6 in mouse HSPCs resulted in thrombocytosis, mild neutropenia and megakaryocytic dysplasia. A subset of mice transplanted with TRAF6-expressing marrow progressed either to marrow failure or acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, inappropriate activation of innate immune signals in HSPCs phenocopies several clinical features of 5q- syndrome.