Update on thyroid eye disease and management

Clin Ophthalmol. 2009;3:543-51. doi: 10.2147/opth.s5228. Epub 2009 Oct 19.


Thyroid eye disease is a heterogeneous autoimmune orbital reaction typically manifesting in middle age. The inflammation may parallel or remain isolated from a related inflammatory cascade in the thyroid called Graves' disease. The orbital manifestations can lead to severe proptosis, dry eyes, strabismus, and optic neuropathy. In this article, we will discuss this unique condition including the ophthalmic findings and management.

Keywords: Graves’ disease; enlarged extraocular muscles; orbital decompression; proptosis; thyroid eye disease.