Professionals' and laypersons' appreciation of various options for Class III surgical correction

Eur J Orthod. 2010 Aug;32(4):395-402. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjp104. Epub 2009 Nov 9.


The objectives of this study were to evaluate the assessments of maxillofacial surgeons, orthodontists, and laypersons on the predicted aesthetic outcome of various surgical options in Class III correction and the associations between certain initial cephalometric values and the judges' preferred option. Pre-surgical lateral headfilms and coloured profile photographs of 18 skeletal Class III Caucasian adult patients (10 males and 8 females) with a mean age of 24.5 years were used. The headfilms were hand traced and digitized. Conventional cephalometric analysis was performed. Computerized predictions of three surgical options, mandibular setback, Le Fort I advancement, and bimaxillary surgery, were made. For each case, the pre-surgical profile photograph with the three predictions was presented on a printed page. The questionnaire was sent to 51 maxillofacial surgeons (response rate 45.1 per cent), 78 orthodontists (response rate 71.8 per cent), and 61 laypersons (response rate 100 per cent) to aesthetically evaluate the pre-surgical photographs and the surgical predictions by placing a mark along a 10-graded visual analogue scale (VAS) using a standard profile for calibration. Confidence interval was calculated for each patient. An independent samples t-test was used to detect initial cephalometric values associated with the judges' preferred option and analysis of variance/Tukey's honestly significant differences to evaluate differences between judges. Intra-observer reliability was assessed with a paired t-test. All treatment predictions led to improved scoring of facial aesthetics with the exception of the setback option for three patients. For 14 patients, general agreement for the preferred option existed between the three groups of judges. Laypersons tended to give lower improvement scores than professionals. Overjet, nasofacial, and nasomental angles were important in decision making between the mandibular setback and Le Fort I options (the more negative the overjet, the larger the nasofacial angle, the smaller the nasomental angle, the greater the preference for the Le Fort I option). Wits appraisal seemed to be important in decision making between the mandibular setback and bimaxillary options (the more negative the Wits appraisal, the greater the preference for the latter option).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Attitude of Health Personnel*
  • Attitude to Health*
  • Cephalometry
  • Chin / pathology
  • Decision Making
  • Esthetics
  • Female
  • Forecasting
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Malocclusion, Angle Class III / surgery*
  • Mandible / pathology
  • Mandible / surgery
  • Maxilla / pathology
  • Maxilla / surgery
  • Nasal Bone / pathology
  • Nose / pathology
  • Orthodontics
  • Osteotomy / methods
  • Osteotomy, Le Fort / methods
  • Patient Care Planning*
  • Photography
  • Surgery, Oral
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult