The effect of periodontal therapy on the improvement of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial

Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2008 Apr;28(2):38-44. doi: 10.4103/0973-3930.43097.

Abstract

Aims: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of improved periodontal health on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) patients who have generalized periodontitis.

Materials and methods: A total of 45 type 2 DM patients with generalized periodontitis were selected for the study. The selected patients were randomly assigned to three groups (groups A, B, and C) comprising 15 patients each: * Group A received treatment with scaling and root planing only. * Group B received treatment with scaling and root planing followed by systemic doxycycline. * Group C received no treatment (control group). The periodontal parameters recorded included plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level. These parameters were recorded at baseline (day zero), at 1 month, and at the end of 3 months. The following metabolic parameters were recorded: fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PPBG), and glycated hemoglobin. These were recorded at baseline (day zero) and at the end of 3 months.

Statistical analysis: All the parameters were subjected to repeated-measures ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test.

Results: A statistically significant effect could be demonstrated for periodontal parameters for both group A and group B (treatment groups). Glycated hemoglobin values showed statistically significant decrease in treatment groups compared to the control group, with group B showing more significant decrease than group A.

Conclusions: The results of this study showed that nonsurgical periodontal treatment is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 DM patients.

Keywords: Glycemic control; glycated hemoglobin; periodontal treatment; type 2 diabetes mellitus.