Toll-like, vitamin A and D receptors and other innate proteins participate in various immune functions. We determined whether innate gene-sequence variations are associated with rubella vaccine-induced cytokine immune responses. We genotyped 714 healthy children (11-19 years of age) after two doses of rubella-containing vaccine for 148 candidate SNP markers. Rubella virus-induced cytokines were measured by ELISA. Twenty-two significant associations (range of P values 0.002-0.048) were found between SNPs in the vitamin A receptor family (RARA, RARB, TOP2B and RARG), vitamin D receptor and downstream mediator of vitamin D signaling (RXRA) genes and rubella virus-specific (IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF) cytokine immune responses. A TLR3 gene promoter region SNP (rs5743305, -8441A > T) was associated with rubella-specific GM-CSF secretion. Importantly, SNPs in the TRIM5 gene coding regions, rs3740996 (His43Tyr) and rs10838525 (Gln136Arg), were associated with an allele dose-related secretion of rubella virus-specific TNF-alpha and IL-2/GM-CSF, respectively, and have been previously shown to have functional consequences regarding the antiviral activity and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. We identified associations between individual SNPs and haplotypes in, or involving, the RIG-I (DDX58) gene and rubella-specific TNF-alpha secretion. This is the first paper to present evidence that polymorphisms in the TLR, vitamin A, vitamin D receptor, and innate immunity genes can influence adaptive cytokine responses to rubella vaccination.