Schizophrenia is a condition that impairs higher brain functions, some of which are specific to humans. After identification of susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, many efforts have been made to generate genetics-based models for the disease. It is under debate whether behavioral deficits observed in rodents are sufficient to characterize these models. Alternatively, anatomical and neuropathological changes identified in brains of patients with schizophrenia may be utilized as translatable characteristics between humans and rodents, which are important for validation of the models. Here, we overview such anatomical and neuropathological changes in humans: enlarged ventricles, dendritic changes in the pyramidal neurons, and alteration of specific subtypes of interneurons. In this review, we will overview such morphological changes in brains from patients with schizophrenia. Then, we will describe that some of these alterations are already recapitulated even in classic nongenetic models for schizophrenia. Finally, in comparison with the changes in patients and nongenetic models, we will discuss the anatomical and neuropathological manifestation in genetic models for schizophrenia.