In order for neurons to perform their function, they must establish a highly polarized morphology characterized, in most of the cases, by a single axon and multiple dendrites. Herein we find that the evolutionarily conserved protein Kidins220 (kinase D-interacting substrate of 220-kDa), also known as ARMS (ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning), a downstream effector of protein kinase D and neurotrophin and ephrin receptors, regulates the establishment of neuronal polarity and development of dendrites. Kidins220/ARMS gain and loss of function experiments render severe phenotypic changes in the processes extended by hippocampal neurons in culture. Although Kidins220/ARMS early overexpression hinders neuronal development, its down-regulation by RNA interference results in the appearance of multiple longer axon-like extensions as well as aberrant dendritic arbors. We also find that Kidins220/ARMS interacts with tubulin and microtubule-regulating molecules whose role in neuronal morphogenesis is well established (microtubule-associated proteins 1b, 1a, and 2 and two members of the stathmin family). Importantly, neurons where Kidins220/ARMS has been knocked down register changes in the phosphorylation activity of MAP1b and stathmins. Altogether, our results indicate that Kidins220/ARMS is a key modulator of the activity of microtubule-regulating proteins known to actively regulate neuronal morphogenesis and suggest a mechanism by which it contributes to control neuronal development.