Objectives: A new method of determining protein turnover by labeling protein with N amino acids was used in conjunction with serum-free cell culture to profile secreted proteins that are released by MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells in culture.
Methods: MIA PaCa-2 cells were first cultured in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (Gibco by Invitrogen, Carlsbad, Calif) with 10% fetal bovine serum, then in serum-free modified Eagle medium with or without 50% N algal amino acid mixture. The effect of oxythiamine chloride on secreteome was studied. Secreteome from cell culture media was analyzed by 2-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were detected and identified. Protein turnover rates were calculated according to the newly established method. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to validate identified proteins.
Results: Among the 14 differentially expressed proteins after oxythiamine treatment, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-1 and cytokeratin-10 were identified as 2 newly synthesized secreted proteins caused by substantial N incorporation. The inhibition of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-1 expression in MIA PaCa-2 cells by oxythiamine treatment was first demonstrated by 2D gel electrophoresis and further validated by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses.
Conclusions: Our method of labeling protein with N amino acids in conjunction with serum-free cell culture allows the identification of actively secreted proteins from pancreatic cancer cells and is a useful method for serum biomarker discovery.