We studied the efficacy of infrainguinal bypass for limb salvage in patients with end-stage renal disease. The patency of 42 femoropopliteal and femorodistal bypasses, performed for limb salvage in 37 patients with end-stage renal disease, was assessed with Doppler ultrasonography and dye tests. Patency rates and limb salvage were determined by life-table analysis. Average age was 45 years (range, 28 to 61 years); 23 of the 37 were men. Twenty-three patients had diabetes mellitus, and 16 were smokers. Bypass procedures were done in 32 instances while the patients were maintained with chronic hemodialysis and in five instances with peritoneal dialysis; in five instances the patients had had successful renal transplantation. Indications for revascularization included pain at rest, nonhealing ulcer, or distal gangrene. Femoropopliteal bypass was done in 32 limbs; 10 were more distal procedures. Reversed saphenous vein was the conduit in 30 cases; prosthetic material was used in the remainder. Autogenous material was used in all distal bypasses. Four patients required graft revision during the initial hospitalization, but none thereafter. Two patients died within the operative period, nine within 18 months of operation. Nine major operations were required. Three-month cumulative graft patency was achieved in 41 cases and corresponding limb salvage in 33 cases; 18-month patency was achieved in 34 cases and overall limb salvage in 33 cases. Success of limb salvage most closely correlated with preoperative ankle-brachial ratio and level of bypass required.