Uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucose is transported into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter AtUTr1 has been proposed to play a role in this process; however, different lines of evidence suggest that another transporter(s) may also be involved. Here we show that AtUTr3 is involved in the transport of UDP-glucose and is located at the ER but also at the Golgi. Insertional mutants in AtUTr3 showed no obvious phenotype. Biochemical analysis in both AtUTr1 and AtUTr3 mutants indicates that uptake of UDP-glucose into the ER is mostly driven by these two transporters. Interestingly, the expression of AtUTr3 is induced by stimuli that trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR), a phenomenon also observed for AtUTr1, suggesting that both AtUTr1 and AtUTr3 are involved in supplying UDP-glucose into the ER lumen when misfolded proteins are accumulated. Disruption of both AtUTr1 and AtUTr3 causes lethality. Genetic analysis showed that the atutr1 atutr3 combination was not transmitted by pollen and was poorly transmitted by the ovules. Cell biology analysis indicates that knocking out both genes leads to abnormalities in both male and female germ line development. These results show that the nucleotide sugar transporters AtUTr1 and AtUTr3 are required for the incorporation of UDP-glucose into the ER, are essential for pollen development and are needed for embryo sac progress in Arabidopsis thaliana.