Objective: To perform a meta-analysis assessing the effects of self-care management interventions in improving glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes by analysing the impact of different study characteristics on the effect size.
Methods: A literature search in eight scientific databases up to November 2007 included original studies of randomised controlled trials involving adult patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and evaluating a self-care management intervention.
Results: The 47 included studies yielded 7677 participants. The analysis showed a 0.36% (95% CI 0.21-0.51) improvement in glycaemic control in people who received self-care management treatment. In the univariate meta-regression sample size (effect size 0.42%, p=0.007) and follow-up period (effect size 0.49%, p=0.017) were identified to have significant effect on the effect size in favour of small studies and short follow-up. For type of intervention and duration of intervention there was a non-significant effect on effect size in favour of educational techniques and short interventions.
Conclusion: In type 2 diabetes, there are improvements in glycaemic control in people who receive self-care management treatment with a small advantage to intervention with an educational approach.
Practice implications: Further research on frequency and duration of intervention may provide useful information to identify the most effective regime.
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