NSAIDs prevent, but do not reverse, neuronal cell cycle reentry in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease

J Clin Invest. 2009 Dec;119(12):3692-702. doi: 10.1172/JCI39716. Epub 2009 Nov 9.


Ectopic cell cycle events (CCEs) mark vulnerable neuronal populations in human Alzheimer disease (AD) and are observed early in disease progression. In transgenic mouse models of AD, CCEs are found before the onset of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) deposition to form senile plaques, a hallmark of AD. Here, we have demonstrated that alterations in brain microglia occur coincidently with the appearance of CCEs in the R1.40 transgenic mouse model of AD. Furthermore, promotion of inflammation with LPS at young ages in R1.40 mice induced the early appearance of neuronal CCEs, whereas treatment with 2 different nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) blocked neuronal CCEs and alterations in brain microglia without altering amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and steady-state Abeta levels. In addition, NSAID treatment of older R1.40 animals prevented new neuronal CCEs, although it failed to reverse existing ones. Retrospective human epidemiological studies have identified long-term use of NSAIDs as protective against AD. Prospective clinical trials, however, have failed to demonstrate a similar benefit. Our use of CCEs as an outcome measure offers fresh insight into this discrepancy and provides important information for future clinical trials, as it suggests that NSAID use in human AD may need to be initiated as early as possible to prevent disease progression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / genetics
  • Alzheimer Disease / pathology*
  • Alzheimer Disease / prevention & control*
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides / metabolism
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / genetics
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology*
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / pathology
  • Cell Cycle / drug effects
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ibuprofen / pharmacology
  • Lipopolysaccharides / toxicity
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Microglia / drug effects
  • Microglia / pathology
  • Mutation
  • Naproxen / pharmacology
  • Neurons / drug effects*
  • Neurons / pathology*
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational / drug effects
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism


  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Naproxen
  • Ibuprofen