Thymosin beta 10 (Tbeta10) is a member of the beta-thymosin family, which has biological activities as an actin-sequestering protein involved in cell motility. Tbeta10 may be correlated with tumor biology such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis behavior. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of Tbeta10 in cancer are largely unknown. Tbeta10 is differentially expressed in embryogenesis and neuronal development. Its expression is also increased in many inflammatory conditions and tumorigenesis. This review briefly summarizes recent advances in Tbeta10 research including differential expression, functions, mechanisms, gene regulation, and therapeutic applications in cancer, wound healing, and other diseases.