Is PHEEM a multi-dimensional instrument? An international perspective

Med Teach. 2009 Nov;31(11):e521-7. doi: 10.3109/01421590903095528.


Aim: To look at the characteristics of Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) using data from the UK, Brazil, Chile and the Netherlands, and to examine the reliability and characteristics of PHEEM, especially how the three PHEEM subscales fitted with factors derived statistically from the data sets.

Methods: Statistical analysis of PHEEM scores from 1563 sets of data, using reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis and correlations of factors derived with the three defined PHEEM subscales.

Results: PHEEM was very reliable with an overall Cronbach's alpha of 0.928. Three factors were derived by exploratory factor analysis. Factor One correlated most strongly with the teaching subscale (R = 0.802), Factor Two correlated most strongly with the role autonomy subscale (R = 0.623) and Factor Three correlated most strongly with the social support subscale (R = 0.538).

Conclusions: PHEEM is a multi-dimensional instrument. Overall, it is very reliable. There is a good fit of the three defined subscales, derived by qualitative methods, with the three principal factors derived from the data by exploratory factor analysis.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Delphi Technique
  • Europe
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Focus Groups
  • Hospitals, Teaching*
  • Humans
  • Internationality
  • Internship and Residency*
  • South America
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*
  • Teaching / standards*