Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-regulated Adapters in Lymphocyte Activation

Immunol Rev. 2009 Nov;232(1):255-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2009.00838.x.


Signaling via phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) has emerged as a central component of lymphocyte activation via immunoreceptors, costimulatory receptors, cytokine receptors, and chemokine receptors. The discovery of phosphoinositide-binding pleckstrin homology (PH) domains has substantially increased understanding of how PI3Ks activate cellular responses. Accumulating evidence indicates that PH-domain containing adapter molecules provide important links between PI3K and lymphocyte function. Here, we review data on PI3K-regulated adapter proteins of the Grb-associated binder (GAB), Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein (SKAP), and B-lymphocyte adapter molecule of 32 kDa (Bam32)/ dual-adapter for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides (DAPP)/TAPP families, with a focus on the latter group. Current data support the model that recruitment of these adapters to the plasma membrane of activated lymphocytes is driven by the phosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-tris-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate, generated through the action of PI3Ks and under the regulatory control of lipid phosphatases Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP), phosphatase and tensin homolog, and inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase. At the plasma membrane, these adapters serve to assemble distinct protein complexes. Bam32/DAPP1 and SKAPs function to promote activation of monomeric guanosine triphosphatases, including Rac and Rap, and promote integrin activation, lymphocyte adhesion to matrix proteins, and cell:cell interactions between B and T lymphocytes. GABs can provide feedforward amplification or feedback inhibition of PI3K signaling. Current work is further defining the molecular interactions driven by these molecules and identifying the functions of TAPP adapters, which also appear to be involved in lymphocyte adhesion and are specific effectors downstream of the SHIP product phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / immunology
  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Feedback, Physiological
  • Humans
  • Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatases
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / immunology
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism*
  • Lymphocyte Activation*
  • Membrane Proteins / immunology
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / immunology
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism*
  • Phosphoproteins / immunology
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / metabolism*
  • Protein Multimerization / immunology
  • Protein Transport / immunology
  • Signal Transduction / immunology


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • DAPP1 protein, human
  • GAB1 protein, human
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • PLEKHA1 protein, human
  • Phosphoproteins
  • SKAP1 protein, human
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases
  • Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatases