Diabetes and a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level are associated with each other and with a higher coronary heart disease risk in women. Moreover, both are strongly associated with obesity. These findings are reported from the Framington Study, in which persons aged 49 to 82 were characterized, after overnight fast, for blood lipids by the method of Fredrickson and Levy and then followed for the subsequent development of coronary heart disease. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was also associated with coronary heart disease risk in women, but fasting triglycerides were not associated with risk after allowing for the association with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and diabetes. A low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the presence of diabetes appeared to raise the coronary heart disease risk in women relative to that of men.