In this review, we present the voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) method. The possibility offered for in vivo (and in vitro) brain imaging is unprecedented in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. However, the unresolved multi-component origin of the optical signal encourages us to perform a detailed analysis of the method limitation and the existing models. We propose a biophysical model at a mesoscopic scale in order to understand and interpret this signal.
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