A comparison of pharmacokinetics between humans and monkeys

Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Feb;38(2):308-16. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.028829. Epub 2009 Nov 12.


To verify the availability of pharmacokinetic parameters in cynomolgus monkeys, hepatic availability (Fh) and the fraction absorbed multiplied by intestinal availability (FaFg) were evaluated to determine their contributions to absolute bioavailability (F) after intravenous and oral administrations. These results were compared with those for humans using 13 commercial drugs for which human pharmacokinetic parameters have been reported. In addition, in vitro studies of these drugs, including membrane permeability, intrinsic clearance, and p-glycoprotein affinity, were performed to classify the drugs on the basis of their pharmacokinetic properties. In the present study, monkeys had a markedly lower F than humans for 8 of 13 drugs. Although there were no obvious differences in Fh between humans and monkeys, a remarkable species difference in FaFg was observed. Subsequently, we compared the FaFg values for monkeys with the in vitro pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. No obvious FaFg differences were observed between humans and monkeys for drugs that undergo almost no in vivo metabolism. In contrast, low FaFg were observed in monkeys for drugs that undergo relatively high metabolism in monkeys. These results suggest that first-pass intestinal metabolism is greater in cynomolgus monkeys than in humans, and that bioavailability in cynomolgus monkeys after oral administration is unsuitable for predicting pharmacokinetics in humans. In addition, a rough correlation was also observed between in vitro metabolic stability and Fg in humans, possibly indicating the potential for Fg prediction in humans using only in vitro parameters after slight modification of the evaluation system for in vitro intestinal metabolism.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1 / metabolism
  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Biological Availability
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / methods*
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Male
  • Membranes, Artificial
  • Microsomes / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Permeability
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / administration & dosage
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / blood
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / classification
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / metabolism*
  • Pharmacokinetics*
  • Protein Binding
  • Species Specificity
  • Time Factors


  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1
  • Membranes, Artificial
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations