Objectives: Ultrasound (US) has been shown to facilitate peripheral intravenous (IV) placement in emergency department (ED) patients with difficult IV access (DIVA). This study sought to define patient and vein characteristics that affect successful US-guided peripheral IV placement.
Methods: This was a prospective observational study of US-guided IV placement in a convenience sample of DIVA patients in an urban, tertiary care ED. DIVA patients were defined as having any of the following: at least two failed IV attempts or a history of difficult access plus the inability to visualize or palpate any veins on physical exam. Patient characteristics (demographic information, vital signs, and medical history) were collected on enrolled patients. The relationships between patient characteristics, vein depth and diameter, US probe orientation, and successful IV placement were analyzed.
Results: A total of 169 patients were enrolled, with 236 attempts at access. Increasing vessel diameter was associated with a higher likelihood of success (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79 per 0.1-cm increase in vessel diameter, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37 to 2.34). Increasing vessel depth did not affect success rates (OR = 0.96 per 0.1-cm increase of depth, 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.04) until a threshold depth of 1.6 cm, beyond which no vessels were successfully cannulated. Probe orientation and patient characteristics were unrelated to success.
Conclusions: Success was solely related to vessel characteristics detected with US and not influenced by patient characteristics or probe orientation. Successful DIVA was primarily associated with larger vessel, while vessel depth up to >1.6 cm and patient characteristics were unrelated to success. Clinically, if two vessels are identified at a depth of <1.6 cm, the larger diameter vessel, even if comparatively deeper, should yield the greatest likelihood of success.