Intra- and extra-cellular excretion of carboxylates

Trends Plant Sci. 2010 Jan;15(1):40-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2009.10.002. Epub 2009 Nov 11.


Carboxylates, such as malate and citrate, are widely acknowledged to have a central role in plant metabolism. They are involved in the production of energy and its storage as well as contributing to the cellular osmolyte pool and participating in the regulation of cellular pH. As we discuss here, recent research has demonstrated the functional importance of carboxylate excretion into the soil, apoplast and vacuole, particular with respect to the regulation of stomatal and root function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Transport
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism*
  • Extracellular Space / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Space / metabolism
  • Plants / metabolism*