Evaluation of the inclusion of a mixture of organic acids or lactulose into the feed of pigs experimentally challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium

Vet Microbiol. 2010 May 19;142(3-4):337-45. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.09.061. Epub 2009 Oct 20.


A mixture of organic acids and lactulose for preventing or reducing colonization of the gut by Salmonella Typhimurium was evaluated in pigs. A total of 63 4-week-old commercial piglets were randomly distributed into three different experimental dietary groups: a plain diet without additives (PD) and the same diet supplemented with either 0.4% (w/v) formic acid and 0.4% lactic acid (w/v) (AC) or 1% (w/v) lactulose (LC). After 7 days of adaptation, two-thirds of the pigs (14 from each diet) were challenged with a 2-mL oral dose of 10(8)CFU/mL of Salmonella Typhimurium, leaving the remaining animals unchallenged (UC). After 4 and 10 days post-challenge, pigs were euthanized and the ileum and caecum content were aseptically sampled to (a) quantify lactic, formic, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), (b) quantify bacterial populations and Salmonella by fluorescence in situ hybridization and (c) qualitatively analyse bacterial populations through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Modification of fermentation products and counts of some of the bacterial groups analysed in the challenged pigs receiving the treatments AC and LC were minimal. Treatments only influenced the bacterial diversity after 10 days post-challenge, with AC generating a lower number of DGGE bands than UC (P<0.05). Neither the inclusion of a mixture of 0.4% (w/v) formic and 0.4% (w/v) lactic acids nor of 1% (w/v) lactulose in the feed influenced numbers of Salmonella in the ileum and caecum of experimentally challenged pigs.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biodiversity
  • Cecum / microbiology
  • Diet / veterinary*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Fatty Acids, Volatile / analysis
  • Formates / administration & dosage*
  • Formates / analysis
  • Gastrointestinal Contents / chemistry
  • Gastrointestinal Contents / microbiology
  • Ileum / microbiology
  • Lactic Acid / administration & dosage*
  • Lactic Acid / analysis
  • Lactulose / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Random Allocation
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal / microbiology
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal / prevention & control*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / growth & development
  • Swine
  • Swine Diseases / microbiology
  • Swine Diseases / prevention & control*


  • Fatty Acids, Volatile
  • Formates
  • formic acid
  • Lactic Acid
  • Lactulose