High-frequency genomic rearrangements affecting the plasmids of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli CFN42 were analyzed. This strain contains six large plasmids ranging in size from 200 to 600 kb. In the absence of any selective pressure, we found 11 strains from 320 analyzed colonies that presented different kinds of plasmid-borne rearrangements, including sequence amplification, deletion, cointegration, and loss of plasmids. These data support the concept that the R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli genome is a dynamic structure and imply that strains are mixtures of similar but not identical cells.